Monthly Archives: October 2017

Reviving vernacular designs

Those who believe that modernity offers a wider choice are not aware of variations in indigenous architecture occurring virtually everywhere in the country. CVA in Bengaluru is committed to the cause of the latter.

21bgp-vernaculaGFU2NSUK74jpgjpgA A curious phenomenon occurs as cities grow – as they evolve with a modern image, they also seek to showcase their traditional roots. If not all, a few converted people trace the design from the past and apply it fresh in the new contexts.

Bengaluru has specifically faced this trend; as such, possibly has a notable variety of traditional designs in a modern avatar. During the last two decades, many architects have attempted to promote culture and constructions whenever they get an opportunity, but very few have dared to stay only with the vernacular. Among them is the Centre for Vernacular Architecture (CVA) in Bengaluru, started by R.L. Kumar.

A Chartered Accountant before he gave it up to join the CIEDS (Centre for Informal Education and Development Studies) Collective in 1983, Kumar has been a philosopher activist. Inspired by a wide range of thinkers including Ivan Illich, Michel Foucault, Dharampal, Ashis Nandy and Jeet Singh Oberoi, Kumar’s passions are wide. Many modern architects have forayed into traditional architecture, but Kumar is specially worth mentioning, being neither an engineer nor an architect entering this difficult field.

Empowering labourers

The idea of starting CVA was not a sudden one, but followed the success of Shramik, a construction workers’ cooperative he found in the late Eighties with labourers from Khader Sharief Garden, where civic amenities for slum dwellers was a major concern.

CVA evolved in the early 90s not merely to build houses but to empower village labourers and bring them into the fold of financial equity. CVA continues to perform today on par with how it was, 4 years after Kumar’s demise, which proves how participatory and decentralised the initiative has been. Incidentally, hand crafts, social equality, natural materials, and such others are all part of vernacular values.

Those who believe that modernity offers a wider choice are not aware of variations in indigenous architecture occurring virtually every tenth mile across India, far beyond the modernity which looks alike everywhere. Kumar believed we need to live this vernacular again, for modernity could not solve problems of today.

Strangely but truly, one of the major reasons for the declining popularity of local tradition, including handcrafted skills, is our professional college education in English, structured by the British, largely ignoring all local wisdoms.

We are still walking the path they mapped, and ignore the gem in our backyards. No wonder, we see no glitter in exposed stone walls, brick patterns, perforated walls, internal courtyards, small windows, sloping roofs, local materials, rural aesthetics, clay tiles, human scale, rustic finish, folk themes and many such others which essentially are vernacular.

How much of Bengaluru do we find in buildings of the city today can be a debatable question, Bengaluru itself having morphed into an international city. Yet, culture, architecture and ecology connections cannot be easily negated. Values like perfection and continuation that the vernacular stands for, cannot be deleted from theories of architecture.

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Rethinking The Vernacular

The vernacular has the widest variety of building ideas climatically suited to all contexts, but we are blindly following the ‘one size suits all’ policy.

30bgpgreenPPGG7T2IJLUM3jpgjpgIf we study our past and the present, the Indian music is thriving well; community cuisine has come to be served in restaurants; ritualistic practises continue; traditional dresses stay popular amidst the new haute couture and homestays have returned despite increasing number of hotels.

The major casualty appears to be in architecture, where the vernacular is getting diluted, with the modern going strong. Hence the concern and need to re-think about this ever green and ever appropriate means of making of buildings.

Among the best suited quotes to understand the vernacular could be by Mahatma Gandhi. He says ‘I want the culture of all lands to be blown about my house, but I refuse to be blown off my feet by any”.

For him, the local and the outsider are not mutually competing phenomena, but complementing, hence the need for them to inform each other. Yet, we are discontinuing local traditions, being blown off our feet. It started with the British introducing new professional programmes for architecture and civil engineering, ridiculing our indigenous practices. Across centuries, it is now accelerated by the MNC culture following global practices, informed by internet, media and new images.

Shortage of documentation

We have an acute shortage of replicable drawings and documentation of the local, which was mostly practised with minimal sketches by a few skilled people. It cannot compete with modern approaches equipped with standardised designs, building codes, PWD manuals and textbooks to pass on the knowledge.

Paradoxically, the vernacular has the widest variety of ideas climatically suited to all contexts, but we are blindly following the ‘one size suits all’ policy. The range of ‘architecture without architects’ produced in India is in no way inferior to anything that any other nation has produced across history.

The way vernacular architecture evolves does not change. It can emerge even today by designing with users, specific to a place and responding to the functional need. What is critical is not how the final design appears, but how that design evolves.

As such, there can be a vernacular approach even in an urban setting. The design ethos has not changed, but our mind-set has changed, hence we ignore it.

There are many architects who have turned away from modern practices, like Sudhir from Chennai, who with his aptly named firm ‘Peoples Architecture Commonweal’ has been using the same methods as that of vernacular towards making of urban architecture.

Merging ideas

Both the theories of design-like scale, geometry, materiality or character and those outside it like compassion, sensitivity and humility merge here. Designing and building together with the owners, the projects become eco-friendly, with no certification ever required.

Be it vernacular or sustainability, none of these should be a matter of fashion nor a superficially applicable idea, but be the core quality of the project. If we have to move out of unsustainable impersonal designs, we need to adopt personal vernacular approaches.