Reviving vernacular designs
Those who believe that modernity offers a wider choice are not aware of variations in indigenous architecture occurring virtually everywhere in the country. CVA in Bengaluru is committed to the cause of the latter.
A A curious phenomenon occurs as cities grow – as they evolve with a modern image, they also seek to showcase their traditional roots. If not all, a few converted people trace the design from the past and apply it fresh in the new contexts.
Bengaluru has specifically faced this trend; as such, possibly has a notable variety of traditional designs in a modern avatar. During the last two decades, many architects have attempted to promote culture and constructions whenever they get an opportunity, but very few have dared to stay only with the vernacular. Among them is the Centre for Vernacular Architecture (CVA) in Bengaluru, started by R.L. Kumar.
A Chartered Accountant before he gave it up to join the CIEDS (Centre for Informal Education and Development Studies) Collective in 1983, Kumar has been a philosopher activist. Inspired by a wide range of thinkers including Ivan Illich, Michel Foucault, Dharampal, Ashis Nandy and Jeet Singh Oberoi, Kumar’s passions are wide. Many modern architects have forayed into traditional architecture, but Kumar is specially worth mentioning, being neither an engineer nor an architect entering this difficult field.
The idea of starting CVA was not a sudden one, but followed the success of Shramik, a construction workers’ cooperative he found in the late Eighties with labourers from Khader Sharief Garden, where civic amenities for slum dwellers was a major concern.
CVA evolved in the early 90s not merely to build houses but to empower village labourers and bring them into the fold of financial equity. CVA continues to perform today on par with how it was, 4 years after Kumar’s demise, which proves how participatory and decentralised the initiative has been. Incidentally, hand crafts, social equality, natural materials, and such others are all part of vernacular values.
Those who believe that modernity offers a wider choice are not aware of variations in indigenous architecture occurring virtually every tenth mile across India, far beyond the modernity which looks alike everywhere. Kumar believed we need to live this vernacular again, for modernity could not solve problems of today.
Strangely but truly, one of the major reasons for the declining popularity of local tradition, including handcrafted skills, is our professional college education in English, structured by the British, largely ignoring all local wisdoms.
We are still walking the path they mapped, and ignore the gem in our backyards. No wonder, we see no glitter in exposed stone walls, brick patterns, perforated walls, internal courtyards, small windows, sloping roofs, local materials, rural aesthetics, clay tiles, human scale, rustic finish, folk themes and many such others which essentially are vernacular.
How much of Bengaluru do we find in buildings of the city today can be a debatable question, Bengaluru itself having morphed into an international city. Yet, culture, architecture and ecology connections cannot be easily negated. Values like perfection and continuation that the vernacular stands for, cannot be deleted from theories of architecture.