Monthly Archives: December 2018

Arch as a foundation

With earth below, the arch would be even more stable and hence can take greater load, supporting the building walls. 

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It is interesting to note how we tend to forget what we learn. Just leaf through an old book of medicine, construction, cooking or stitching, documenting certain ideas. Only after proving itself, that idea would have been codified, written about and became part of the book. As such we may assume the written idea is a proven idea.

Let us check how many of the ideas explained in the texts are followed now. Maybe a handful or little more, not because the rest of the ideas have failed, they have been either replaced by newer ideas or have simply been forgotten.

The art of constructing a building foundation using arches is one among such ideas – simply forgotten. We continue making arches above ground but why not below ground? With earth below, the arch would be even more stable hence can take the greater load, supporting the building walls.

There are two methods to do an arch foundation – if the full foundation would be underground, the foundation trench is dug directly with arch profiles with adequate spacing between them to build foundation piers to spring the arches. This space where arches start would need a normal footing with enough width to take on two arches. The unexcavated earth stays underneath the arch as if that’s the centring support.

If the site is lower than the road, we dig only to erect the foundation piers, taking them deep enough to reach hard soil. From the top of piers which is at the site level, we can start the arches, which should be within 5 to 8 feet span for general safety. In case of uneven sites, the rise of arches can also be varied to suit the context. Arch centring is generated by filling in mud in the required profile, where using an M.S. template ensures the curved profile is perfectly suited to take the arch action.

The curved mud profile is topped with water mud mix and manually consolidated. If the top mud layer appears very brittle, a thin cement or cement-stabilised mud mortar can be applied, ensure there is a level base layer below the arch.

Now, stone or brick arches are built just like we do in any wall and cured well. Plinth beam is placed above the arches and backfilling the earth up to plinth level completes the foundation work of the building.

Architect Rajesh Jain from R-LEEF has been reviving this forgotten technology for many years now, improving it from its textbook days. Of course, it needs an engineer’s supervision, masons with arch construction skills and contractors with inclinations to explore. If the team is not interested in exploring, the idea may fail due to a badly done job.

Imagine a small plot with a dozen RCC columns and next to it a dozen arches – both take the load. To live a green future, we need to revive older ideas

Raw, rustic, artistic

When MES School of Architecture at Kuttipuram instituted an Award for Sustainable Living, its natural choice was Mohan Chevara, Rukmini and family.

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As this essay is being written and read this week, the media is full of news on the ever increasing climate crisis. A recently published IPCC (Inter-governmental Panel for Climate Change) report states that the world is warmer by 1.2 degree Celsius compared to the pre-industrial era. At this rate, we could be warmer by 1.5 degrees by 2030, much earlier than what was predicted in the last report.

The 24th CoP (Conference of Parties) is now being held at Poland with leaders from 197 nations converging at one place, hoping to converge on one decision – to resolve implementing the declarations of various past climate conventions. The former is sure, but the latter is doubtful.

This is not to connect the heads of state with climate change, but to remind all of us that we all are responsible for the crisis and the solution are within us. One such family that resolved to live with nature and practice eco-friendly living is the Chevara family near Palakkad.

When MES School of Architecture at Kuttipuram instituted an Award for Sustainable Living recently, the choice of its first recipient was Mohan Chevara, Rukmini and family.

The couple left their comfortable urban occupations in art and pharmacy education respectively and moved into a farming community which they started with a group of like-minded friends. Not believing in the commercialised school systems of today, they home-schooled their two daughters with many skill-sets, but no college degrees. Growing their own food with groundwater, their dependency on externalities was meager.

The family built a small 500 sq. ft. the house there all by themselves, except for electrician and roof carpenter, which naturally took time, but it came close to being with nature. Interwoven spliced bamboo applied over with mud mortar (wattle and daub) walls were adorned with has reliefs; frameless shutters made of split bamboo hung from top, covering the small windows with bamboo grills; bookshelves and ledges were made of bamboo; bamboo steps led to a compact mezzanine; cooking was in a tiny corner with firewood and gas as may be needed – it’s a lesson to learn from to check how less we need to live a basic life!

The house was raw, rustic but artistic. The rooms and spaces were tiny but were just about what we really need. A few material compromises and dependency on state electricity supply continues, for the project is still incomplete and health imperatives have made some demands on the final product.

Chevaras choose this lifestyle not out of compulsion of poverty, illiteracy or unemployment, but out of own choice to live with nature. They critique the modern urban living and wanted to take an alternative path to live sustainably.

Yet it was curious to note that they did not talk big and claimed to be saviors of ecology; it’s a simple way of life for them. We need more such people.